ASBR ICEIPI 2022, 02 February 2023
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This study intends to examine the relationships among the four individual-level elements(i.e. age, gender, occupation and degree of education), face concerns and conflict styles in interpersonal conflicts in a certain culture. 205 participants from China were investigated by filling in a questionnaire survey. Significant results were discovered that gender mediates conflict styles while age and degree of education have respective links with face concerns among these Chinese participants: 1) In an interpersonal conflict, females relatively have a higher tendency to choose the avoiding style and comprising style while males relatively show a higher tendency to use the dominating style; 2) People from 30-50 years old have relatively highest concern for other faces, next are people above 50, and the last, people from 20-30 have relatively lowest concern for other faces; 3) Highly educated people in China show more concern for other faces than people with a low education background. Although more research is needed to examine how the four elements influence face concerns and conflict styles in other countries and cultures, and to identify the underlying factors that why age, gender and degree of education produce respective effects on face concerns or conflict styles, the current results can provide more detailed and recognizable predictors for Chinese people to foresee target person’s face concern and choice of conflict styles in an interpersonal conflict.
Self-Construals., Conflict Styles, Face Concerns, FNT
1. Ting-Toomey, S.＆A. Kurogi. 1998. Facework competence in inter-cultural conflict: An updated face-negotiation theory[J] International Journal of International Relations, 22( 2) : 187-228．
2. Oetzel, John G., and Stella Ting-Toomey. “Face Concerns in Interpersonal Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Empirical Test of the Face Negotiation Theory.” Communication Research, vol. 30, no. 6, Dec. 2003, pp. 599–624.
3. John Oetzel, Mary Meares, Karen K. Myer & Estefana Lara. Interpersonal conflict in organizations: Explaining conflict styles via face-negotiation theory[J]. Communication Research Reports. Volume 20, issue 2. Pages 106-115. 06 Jun 2019
4. James W. Neuliep & Morgan Johnson. A cross-cultural comparison of Ecuadorian and United States face, facework, and conflict styles during interpersonal conflict: An application of face-negotiation theory. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication. Volume 9, issue 1. Pages 1-19. 24 Dec 2015
5. Ting-Toomey, S. 1988. Intercultural conflicts: A face negotiation theory[A]. In Kim, Y＆ W. Gudykunst. (eds.). Theories in Inter-cultural Communication[C]. Newbury Park: Sage.
6. Ting-Toomey, Stella. "Conflict face-negotiation theory." Conflict management and intercultural communication: The art of intercultural harmony (2017): 123-143.
7. Qin Zhang, Stella Ting-Toomey, John G. Oetzel. Linking Emotion to the Conflict Face-Negotiation Theory: A U.S.–China Investigation of the Mediating Effects of Anger, Compassion, and Guilt in Interpersonal Conflict. (2014)
8. MoRIIzuMI, Satoshi, and Jiro TAKAI. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict: Elaborating on Face Negotiation Theory." The Japanese Journal of Language in Society 15.2 (2013): 46-57.
9. Rahim, M. Afzalur. "A measure of styles of handling interpersonal conflict." Academy of Management journal 26.2 (1983): 368-376.
10. Ting-Toomey, Stella, et al. "Ethnic/cultural identity salience and conflict styles in four US ethnic groups." International Journal of Intercultural Relations 24.1 (2000): 47-81.
11. BanuCingöz-Ulu, Richard N.Lalonde. The role of culture and relational context in interpersonal conflict: Do Turks and Canadians use different conflict management strategies? International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Volume 31, Issue 4, July 2007, Pages 443-458
12. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98,224-253.
13. Jeong, Ho-Won. Understanding conflict and conflict analysis. Sage, 2008.
14. Yanhui Chen. A quantitative study of face negotiation in the context of cross-cultural conflict (Chinese). 外Foreign Languages and Their Teaching. 2011, (05).
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Authors who publish this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See Open Access Instruction).