Advances in Social Behavior Research

Advances in Social Behavior Research

ASBR ICEIPI 2022, 03 March 2023

Open Access | Article

Racial Attitudes toward Black and Asian People: From Chinese International Students’ Perspective

Minxuan Feng * 1
1 Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development,Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Advances in Social Behavior Research, ASBR ICEIPI 2022, 573-582
Published 03 March 2023. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Minxuan Feng. Racial Attitudes toward Black and Asian People: From Chinese International Students’ Perspective. ASBR (2023) ASBR ICEIPI 2022: 573-582.


Racial bias has been a controversial topic across nations, especially in Western countries. Prior western research intensively studied the racial attitudes and interracial conflicts of white, black, or other minorities. However, researchers seldomly focus their eyesight on Chinese international students, who are the minority group and temporarily reside in these countries. To address the importance of Chinese international students’ racial attitudes towards interracial groups and diversify feasible research data, this research used implicit methods and explicit methods to examine implicit and explicit racial attitudes among Chinese international students (N = 27 participants, 13 females and 14 males). Results found that Chinese international students displayed implicit racial preferences for Asians higher than that of Blacks, but there are no explicit racial preferences. Additionally, no correlation was found between implicit and explicit racial biases. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of implicit racial biases and point to the need to reduce these biases among international students.


racial bias, explicit bias, international students., implicit bias


1. Mosley, D. V., Hargons, C. N., Meiller, C., Angyal, B., Wheeler, P., Davis, C., & Stevens-Watkins, D. (2021). Critical consciousness of anti-Black racism: A practical model to prevent and resist racial trauma. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 68(1), 1–16.

2. Yoo, H. C., Atkin, A. L., Seaton, E. K., Gabriel, A. K., & Parks, S. J. (2021). Development of a support for Black Lives Matter measure among racially–ethnically diverse college students. American Journal of Community Psychology, 68(1-2), 100–113.

3. West, K., Greenland, K., & Laar, C. (2021). Implicit racism, colour blindness, and narrow definitions of discrimination: Why some White people prefer “All Lives Matter” to “Black Lives Matter.” British Journal of Social Psychology, 60(4), 1136–1153.

4. Keum, Miller, M. J., Lee, M., & Chen, G. A. (2018). Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale for Asian Americans: Testing the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance Across Generational Status. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 149–157.

5. Museus, S. D., & Park, J. J. (2015). The Continuing Significance of Racism in the Lives of Asian American College Students. Journal of College Student Development, 56(6), 551–569.

6. Haft, S. L., & Zhou, Q. (2021). An outbreak of xenophobia: Perceived discrimination and anxiety in Chinese American college students before and during the COVID‐19 pandemic. International Journal of Psychology, 56(4), 522–531.

7. Qian, Heyman, G. D., Quinn, P. C., Messi, F. A., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2016). Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults From Asia and Africa. Child Development, 87(1), 285–296.

8. Setoh, Lee, K. J. J., Zhang, L., Qian, M. K., Quinn, P. C., Heyman, G. D., & Lee, K. (2019). Racial Categorization Predicts Implicit Racial Bias in Preschool Children. Child Development, 90(1), 162–179.

9. Greenwald, McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464–1480.

10. Gawronski, B., Hofmann, W., & Wilbur, C. J. (2006). Are “implicit” attitudes unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition, 15(3), 485–499.

11. Rydell, R. J., & McConnell, A. R. (2006). Understanding implicit and explicit attitude change: A systems of reasoning analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(6), 995-1008.

12. Greenwald, Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 197–216.

13. Neville, Lilly, R. L., Duran, G., Lee, R. M., & Browne, L. (2000). Construction and Initial Validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 59–70.

14. Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Automatic processes in social thinking and behavior (pp. 265–292). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

15. Cunningham, Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit Attitude Measures: Consistency, Stability, and Convergent Validity. Psychological Science, 12(2), 163–170.

16. Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Zeitschrift fu¨r Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 85–93.

17. Schofield, J. W. (1986). Causes and consequences of the colorblind perspective. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 231-253). New York: Academic Press.

18. Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

19. Baron, & Banaji, M. R. (2006). The Development of Implicit Attitudes: Evidence of Race Evaluations from Ages 6 and 10 and Adulthood. Psychological Science, 17(1), 53–58.

20. Rutland, Cameron, L., Milne, A., & McGeorge, P. (2005). Social Norms and Self-Presentation: Children’s Implicit and Explicit Intergroup Attitudes. Child Development, 76(2), 451–466.

21. Williams, & Steele, J. R. (2019). Examining Children’s Implicit Racial Attitudes Using Exemplar and Category‐Based Measures. Child Development, 90(3), e322–e338.

22. Qian, Heyman, G. D., Quinn, P. C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2019). Differential Developmental Courses of Implicit and Explicit Biases for Different Other-Race Classes. Developmental Psychology, 55(7), 1440–1452.

23. Dunham, Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2006). From American City to Japanese Village: A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Implicit Race Attitudes. Child Development, 77(5), 1268–1281.

24. Vuletich, & Payne, B. K. (2019). Stability and Change in Implicit Bias. Psychological Science, 30(6), 854–862.

25. Payne, & Hannay, J. W. (2021). Implicit bias reflects systemic racism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 25(11), 927–936.

26. Akinro, N., & Mbunyuza-Memani, L. (2019). Black is not beautiful: Persistent messages and the globalization of “white” beauty in African women’s magazines. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 12(4), 308–324.

27. Makkar, J. K., & Strube, M. J. (1995). Black Women’s Self-Perceptions of Attractiveness Following Exposure to White Versus Black Beauty Standards: The Moderating Role of Racial Identity and Self-Esteem. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(17), 1547–1566.

28. Milkie, M. A. (1999). Social Comparisons, Reflected Appraisals, and Mass Media: The Impact of Pervasive Beauty Images on Black and White Girls’ Self-Concepts. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62(2), 190–210.

29. Payne, Burkley, M. A., & Stokes, M. B. (2008). Why Do Implicit and Explicit Attitude Tests Diverge? The Role of Structural Fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 16–31.

30. Prestwich, Kenworthy, J. B., Wilson, M., & Kwan-Tat, N. (2008). Differential relations between two types of contact and implicit and explicit racial attitudes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(4), 575–588.

31. Feddes, Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2009). Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Childrens Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study. Child Development, 80(2), 377–390.

32. Rutland, Cameron, L., Bennett, L., & Ferrell, J. (2005). Interracial contact and racial constancy: A multi-site study of racial intergroup bias in 3–5 year old Anglo-British children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 699–713.

33. Killen, Kelly, M. C., Richardson, C., & Jampol, N. S. (2010). Attributions of Intentions and Fairness Judgments Regarding Interracial Peer Encounters. Developmental Psychology, 46(5), 1206–1213.

Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Authors who publish this journal agree to the following terms:

1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.

3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See Open Access Instruction).

Copyright © 2023 EWA Publishing. Unless Otherwise Stated